When we think of the Ottoman Empire, it immediately and almost inevitably sparks our imagination. It evokes an orientalist fantasy that is populated by great sultans, that is full of exotic scents and that is accompanied by the sound of the muezzin’s call for Islamic prayer. But there is much more to it. At its height, the great Ottoman Empire (ca. 1299–1922) spread from Anatolia and the Caucasus across North Africa and into Syria, Arabia, and Iraq. It united many disparate parts of the Isla..