The Global Challenges of Noncommunicable Diseases

By PLOS Collections | Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for two-thirds of the world's deaths, one-fourth of which occur before the age of 60. Nearly 80% of NCD deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, where they are also increasing most rapidly. With these global needs and disparities in mind, the editors of PLOS Medicine issued a call for papers into research and commentary on NCDs directed toward improving population health and reducing health disparities. For this theme, we include as part of the definition of NCD research the identification, treatment, and prevention of mental health and substance use disorders, as both cause considerable morbidity and mortality, contribute to NCDs, and similarly require the health systems necessary to care for chronic conditions. This Collection brings together research and commentary published in PLOS Medicine that examines the global challenges and opportunities for addressing noncommunicable disease around the world.

The Global Challenges of Noncommunicable Diseases

Addressing Global Disparities in the Burden of Noncommunicable Diseases: Call for Papers

1. World Health Organization (2012) Noncommunicable diseases. Available: http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles_P/Mee​tings_Seminars_NCD_Paper.pdf. …

Atlas of availability of national actions to limit salt or fat intake or increase fruit and vegetable intake or physical activity.

The Paradox of Mental Health: Over-Treatment and Under-Recognition

1. The PLOS Medicine Editors (2012) Addressing Global Disparities in the Burden of Noncommunicable Diseases: Call for Papers. PLoS Med 9(12): …

Tackling Non-Communicable Diseases In Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Is the Evidence from High-Income Countries All We Need?

1. Murray CJ, Vos T, Lozano R, Naghavi M, Flaxman AD, et al. (2012) Global burden of diseases and injuries for 291 causes and 21 regions. 1990–2012: …

Access to Drugs for Treatment of Noncommunicable Diseases

Citation: Bollyky TJ (2013) Access to Drugs for Treatment of Noncommunicable Diseases. PLoS Med 10(7): e1001485. …

Percentage of individuals with high depression scores (SRQ scores>6), high PTSD scores (HTQ scores≥30), and high function scores (≥8) assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months.

Implementation and Scale-Up of Psycho-Trauma Centers in a Post-Conflict Area: A Case Study of a Private–Public Partnership in Northern Uganda

Citation: Nakimuli-Mpungu E, Alderman S, Kinyanda E, Allden K, Betancourt TS, Alderman JS, et al. (2013) Implementation and Scale-Up of Psycho-Trauma …

Cardiovascular Risk of NSAIDs: Time to Translate Knowledge into Practice

Citation: Reddy KS, Roy A (2013) Cardiovascular Risk of NSAIDs: Time to Translate Knowledge into Practice. PLoS Med 10(2): e1001389. …

Is It Time to Screen Women with History of Hypertensive Pregnancy Disorders for Diabetes?

Citation: Tran T (2013) Is It Time to Screen Women with History of Hypertensive Pregnancy Disorders for Diabetes? PLoS Med 10(4): e1001428. …

Air Pollution and Atherosclerosis: New Evidence to Support Air Quality Policies

1. Suwa T, Hogg JC, Quinlan KB, Ohgami A, Vincent R, et al. (2002) Particulate air pollution induces progression of atherosclerosis. J Am Coll …

The Health Effects of Motorization

1. Murray CJL, Vos T, Lozano R, Naghavi M, Flaxman AD, et al. (2012) Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 …

Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health: Integration in Research, Policy, and Practice

1. WHO (2001) The World Health Report 2001: Mental Health: New Understanding, New Hope. Geneva: World Health Organization.

2. Murray CJL, Vos T, …

Grand Challenges: Integrating Maternal Mental Health into Maternal and Child Health Programmes

1. Collins PY, Insel TR, Chockalingam A, Daar A, Maddox YT (2013) Grand Challenges in global mental health: integration in research, policy, and …

Grand Challenges: Integrating Mental Health Care into the Non-Communicable Disease Agenda

1. Mathers CD, Loncar D (2006) Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med 3(11): e442 …

Grand Challenges: Improving HIV Treatment Outcomes by Integrating Interventions for Co-Morbid Mental Illness

1. Goulet JL, Fultz SL, Rimland D, Butt A, Gibert C, et al. (2007) Aging and infectious diseases: do patterns of comorbidity vary by HIV status, age, …

Grand Challenges: Integrating Mental Health Services into Priority Health Care Platforms

1. Rahman A, Surkan PJ, Cayetano CE, Rwagatare P, Dickson KE (2013) Grand challenges: integrating maternal mental health into maternal and child …

Recent Shifts in Global Governance: Implications for the Response to Non-communicable Diseases

Citation: Sridhar D, Brolan CE, Durrani S, Edge J, Gostin LO, Hill P, et al. (2013) Recent Shifts in Global Governance: Implications for the Response …

QQ plots of different models of population change in BMI over time.

Change in the Body Mass Index Distribution for Women: Analysis of Surveys from 37 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Abstract

Background

There are well-documented global increases in mean body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of overweight (BMI≥25.0 kg/m2) and obese …

Erectile Dysfunction Severity as a Risk Marker for Cardiovascular Disease Hospitalisation and All-Cause Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study

Abstract

Background

Erectile dysfunction is an emerging risk marker for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events; however, evidence on dose response …

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Lung Cancer Treatment: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Abstract

Background

Intervention-generated inequalities are unintended variations in outcome that result from the organisation and delivery of health …

Causal Relationship between Obesity and Vitamin D Status: Bi-Directional Mendelian Randomization Analysis of Multiple Cohorts

Abstract

Background

Obesity is associated with vitamin D deficiency, and both are areas of active public health concern. We explored the causality and …

Individual NSAID defined daily doses (DDD) expressed as a percentage of total NSAID DDD sales in each country in 2011.

Use of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs That Elevate Cardiovascular Risk: An Examination of Sales and Essential Medicines Lists in Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Countries

Abstract

Background

Certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (e.g., rofecoxib [Vioxx]) increase the risk of heart attack and stroke and …

Adjunctive Atypical Antipsychotic Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Depression, Quality of Life, and Safety Outcomes

1. Alexander GC, Gallagher SA, Mascola A, Moloney RM, Stafford RS (2011) Increasing off-label use of antipsychotic medications in the United States, …

Place of cancer deaths in England, 1993–2010, age- and gender-standardised against the UN mortality standard population.

Changing Patterns in Place of Cancer Death in England: A Population-Based Study

Abstract

Background

Most patients with cancer prefer to die at home or in a hospice, but hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD).This …

Preeclampsia as a Risk Factor for Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study

Abstract

Background

Women with preeclampsia (PEC) and gestational hypertension (GH) exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy, independent of obesity …