deiaa eskander

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inside the jungle

Namibia

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Natural Bridges

موضوع مهم عن الاكسبير ...ارجو قراءته بعنايه . . Drug expiration date....is it fake??!!! =========================== . . . . What does the ‘expiry date’ mean? ---------------------------------------------- The expiration date of a medication indicates the date the manufacturer or pharmacist guarantees the full potency and safety of a drug. So if the expiry date is January 2015, you shouldn’t take the medicine after January 31 2015. . Do expired medications lose their potency? -------------------------------------------------------- The American Medical Association (AMA) concluded in 2001 that the actual shelf life of some products is longer than the labeled expiration date. The AMA stated the best evidence resides in the Shelf Life Extension Program (SLEP) undertaken by the FDA for the Department of Defense. The military was sitting on a $1 billion stockpile of drugs and facing the daunting process of destroying and replacing its supply every 2 to 3 years, so it began a testing program to see if it could extend the life of its inventory. The testing, conducted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Over 3000 lots, representing 122 different drug products, were assessed in the SLEP program. Based on stability data, expiration dates on 88 % of the lots were extended beyond their original expiration date for an average of 66 months. Of these 2652 lots, only 18 % were terminated due to failure. Examples of common drug products that were tested with no failures included amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, diphenhydramine, and morphine sulfate injection. Drug expiration extension dates on these products ranged from 12 to 184 months. These results suggest that many drug products may have extended shelf lives beyond their expiration date. However, it is difficult for any one consumer or health care provider to know which product could have an extended shelf life. . also,Bayer puts 2-year or 3-year dates on aspirin and says that it should be discarded after that. However, Chris Allen, a vice president at the Bayer unit that makes aspirin, said the dating is "pretty conservative"; when Bayer has tested 4-year-old aspirin, it remained 100% effective, he said. So why doesn't Bayer set a 4-year expiration date? Because the company often changes packaging, and it undertakes "continuous improvement programs," Mr. Allen said. Each change triggers a need for more expiration-date testing, and testing each time for a 4-year life would be impractical. on the other hand Dr. Carstensen, professor emeritus at the University of Wisconsin's pharmacy school said, "I did a study of different aspirins, and after 5 years, Bayer was still excellent. Aspirin, if made correctly, is very stable. . . Is it safe to take expired medications? ------------------------------------------------- Solid dosage forms, such as tablets and capsules, appear to be most stable past their expiration date. Drugs that exist in solution or as a reconstituted suspension, and that require refrigeration (such as amoxicillin suspension), may not have the required potency if used when outdated. Loss of potency can be a major health concern, especially when treating an infection with an antibiotic. Additionally, antibiotic resistance may occur with sub-potent medications. Drugs that exist in solution, especially injectable drugs, should be discarded if the product forms a precipitant or looks cloudy or discolored. Insulin is used to control blood sugar in diabetes and may be susceptible to degradation after its expiration date. Oral nitroglycerin (NTG), a medication used for angina (chest pain), may lose its potency quickly once the medication bottle is opened. Vaccines, biologicals or blood products could also be subject to quick degradation once the expiration date is reached. If a patient finds a medication is powdery or crumbling, has a strong smell, or has dried up (as in the case of or ointments or creams), these drugs should be discarded. . . Should patients use expired medications or not?? ------------------------------------------------------------------ If a medication is needed, and the patient is not able to replace the expired medication, there is no evidence that it is unsafe to take the medication in most cases. However, if a medication is essential for a chronic and potentially life-threatening disease, for example, a heart condition, seizure, or life-threatening allergy, it is probably wise to get a new prescription once expired. If an expired medication is for a minor health problem, for example, for a headache, fever, or mild pain, it may also be safe to take it, although drug potency might not be 100 %. . . references --------------- http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/460159 http://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/updates/update1103a.shtml http://www.drugs.com/article/drug-expiration-dates.html http://www.johnshopkinshealthalerts.com/…/JohnsHopkinsPresc… http://www.nhs.uk/…/P…/why-medicines-have-expiry-dates.aspx… http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16721796 http://www.cleveland.com/…/shelf_life_vs_expiration_date.ht… http://www.ashp.org/s_a…/docs/files/CRC_FAQ_Proposed_797.pdf . . AhMeD YoSSeF

هاااام جدا...بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم. . . دوره تدريبيه عن الدم ومكوناته..... . رقم واحد. . . لا تعطيني سمكه ... ولكن علمني كيف اصيدها. . ان شاء الله بنهايه هذا الكورس هانقدر نقرا اعتي cbc وهانقدر نعلق ونعدل علي اتخن تخين في التحاليل....بس قولوا يارب

☼أَصْبَـحْـنا وَأَصْبَـحْ المُـلكُ للهِ رَبِّ العـالَمـين ☼

يا ورد مين يشتريك .. و للحبيب يهديك .. يهدي اليه الأمل .. و الحياة و القُبل .. ياااا وردي ---------------------- صباح الورد

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أحمد عرابى باشا زعيم الثورة العرابية. ولد أحمد عرابي في 31 مارس 1841 في قرية هرية رزنة بمحافظة الشرقية. تعلم القرآن الكريم وأرسله والده الذي كان عمدة القرية إلى التعليم الديني حتى عام 1849 ثم التحق بالمدرسة الحربية. ارتقى عرابي سلم الرتب العسكرية بسرعة حيث أصبح أميرلاي (عميد) في سن العشرين. شارك في حروب الخديوي إسماعيل في الحبشة وكان يعتبر أحد المصريين القلائل الذين وصلوا الي هذه الرتبة بسبب انحياز قادة الجيش وناظر الجهادية إلى الضباط الشركس والأتراك. NA

صباح الخير يا اجمل ناس في اجمل قطعه علي وجه الارض ...... مصــــــــــر وكل عام وحضراتكم بالف خير وسعاده الصوره لاهرمات الجيزه في نهاية القرن التاسع عشر ( في الفتره من ١٨٨٠-١٨٩٩ م )

صورة في احد الاستوديوهات في القاهره نهاية القرن التاسع عشر عام 1880 م

نهاركم سعيد ♥♡♥♡

الشعراوى رحمه الله عليه فى أخر ايامه

الغوص في بئر “إك كل” للمياه الجوفية بالمكسيك، بئر تحتوي على مياه عذبة صافية ونقية لدرجة أنك ترى كل شيء داخلها بوضوح! http://t.co/KkobMkQvPa

منظر رائع لـ كوبادونجا في الضباب - استورياس إسبانيا . http://t.co/S15Whfth3v