Roman History

By Ancient History Encyclopedia www.ancient.eu | A selection of the most popular articles on Roman history from Ancient History Encyclopedia. Battles, emperors, buildings, daily life and more.

The Roman-Parthian War 58-63 CE

The Roman-Parthian War of 58-63 CE was sparked off when the Parthian Empire’s ruler imposed his own brother as the new king of Armenia, considered by …

The Battle of Abritus

The Battle of Abritus was an engagement fought between the armies of Rome under the emperor Decius (249-251 CE) and a coalition of Goths under the …

Ancient History

Mithridates VI

Mithridates VI (120-63 BCE, also known as Mithradates, Mithradates Eupator Dionysius, Mithridates the Great) was the king of Pontus (modern-day …

Ancient History

Jugurtha

Jugurtha (r. 118-105 BCE) was King of Numidia in North Africa and grandson of the first Numidian king Masinissa (r. c. 202-148 BCE). He was the …

Ancient History

Cniva

Cniva (also given as Kniva, c. 250 CE to possibly 270 CE) was the king of the Goths who defeated Emperor Decius (249-251 CE) at the Battle of Abritus …

Ancient History

Enemies of Rome in the 3rd Century CE

It has been said that the greatest enemy of Rome was Rome itself, and this is certainly true of the period known as the Crisis of the Third Century …

The Barracks Emperors

The “Barracks Emperors” is a term coined by later historians referring to the Roman emperors who were chosen and supported by the army during the …

World History

Marcus Gavius Apicius

Marcus Gavius Apicius, a wealthy and educated member of the Roman elite who lived during the reign of Emperor Tiberius (14-37 CE), is famous for his …

Ancient History

The Crisis of the Third Century

The Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Imperial Crisis, 235-284 CE) was the period in the history of the Roman Empire during which it …

Ancient History

Battle of Telamon

Ever since the 4th century BCE, the Gallic tribes of northern Italy clashed with the expanding Roman Republic. In 225 BCE, the Boii forged alliances …

Ancient History

Gaius Marius

Gaius Marius (c. 157-86 BCE) was an accomplished military commander and politician who was acclaimed for saving Rome from the brink of collapse. Yet, …

Ancient History

Roman Literature

The Roman Empire and its predecessor the Roman Republic produced an abundance of celebrated literature; poetry, comedies, dramas, histories, and …

Ancient History

Battle of Immae

The Battle of Immae (272 CE) was fought between the forces of the Roman emperor Aurelian (270-275 CE) and those of the Palmyrene Empire of Zenobia …

Roman Art

The Romans controlled such a vast empire for so long a period that a summary of the art produced in that time can only be a brief and selective one. …

Ancient History

Marcus Claudius Marcellus

Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. 270-208 BCE) was a five-time consul and, earning the nickname the 'Sword of Rome', he was one of the city’s greatest …

Ancient History

Brundisium

Brundisium (modern Brindisi), located on the Adriatic coast of southern Italy, was a Messapian and then Roman town of great strategic importance …

Ancient History

Magnus Maximus

Magnus Maximus (c. 355 - August 28, 388 CE) was a Roman usurper and Western Roman Emperor from 383-388 CE. He was a prominent general in the Roman …

Ancient History

Gladius Hispaniensis

The <i>gladius Hispaniensis</i> or Spanish sword was first used by tribes in the Iberian peninsula and, following the Punic Wars, became the standard sword …

Ancient History

Virgil

Publius Vergilius Maro (70-19 BCE), better known to most modern readers as Virgil, was one of the greatest poets of the early Roman Empire. His …

Ancient History

Horace

Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 BCE), better known to most modern readers as Horace, was one of Rome’s best-loved poets and, along with his fellow …

Ancient History

Ovid

Publius Ovidius Naso, more commonly known to history as Ovid (43 BCE - 17 CE), was one of the most prolific writers of the early Roman Empire. His …

Sejanus

Lucius Aelius Seianus or Sejanus (20 BCE-31 CE) was the commander of the praetorian guard under the emperor Tiberius (14-37 CE). Coming from an …

Ancient History

Viriathus

Viriathus (c. 180-140 BCE) was the leader of the Lusitani in their war with Rome. In 150 Viriathus escaped the Roman massacre and enslavement of …

Ancient History

Cincinnatus

Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus was a Roman consul (460 BCE) and dictator (458 and 439 BCE), a legendary figure in the early days of the Republic. He …

Postumus

Postumus was Roman emperor from 260 to 269 CE. Marcus Cassianus Latinius Postumus was a trusted military commander of Emperor Gallienus (253-268 CE) …

Censor

A censor was one of two senior magistrates in the city of ancient Rome who supervised public morals, maintained the list of citizens and their tax …

Roman Shipbuilding Navigation

Unlike today, where shipbuilding is based on science and where ships are built using computers and sophisticated tools, shipbuilding in ancient Rome …

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus ('Tarquin the Proud') was traditionally the seventh and last king of ancient Rome before it became a republic. He belonged …