Roman History

By Ancient History Encyclopedia www.ancient.eu | A selection of the most popular articles on Roman history from Ancient History Encyclopedia. Battles, emperors, buildings, daily life and more.

Gladius Hispaniensis

The <i>gladius Hispaniensis</i> or Spanish sword was first used by tribes in the Iberian peninsula and, following the Punic Wars, became the standard sword …

Ancient History

Virgil

Publius Vergilius Maro (70-19 BCE), better known to most modern readers as Virgil, was one of the greatest poets of the early Roman Empire. His …

Ancient History

Horace

Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 BCE), better known to most modern readers as Horace, was one of Rome’s best-loved poets and, along with his fellow …

Ovid

Publius Ovidius Naso, more commonly known to history as Ovid (43 BCE - 17 CE), was one of the most prolific writers of the early Roman Empire. His …

Sejanus

Lucius Aelius Seianus or Sejanus (20 BCE-31 CE) was the commander of the praetorian guard under the emperor Tiberius (14-37 CE). Coming from an …

Viriathus

Viriathus (c. 180-140 BCE) was the leader of the Lusitani in their war with Rome. In 150 Viriathus escaped the Roman massacre and enslavement of …

Cincinnatus

Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus was a Roman consul (460 BCE) and dictator (458 and 439 BCE), a legendary figure in the early days of the Republic. He …

Postumus

Marcus Cassianus Latinius Postumus (r. 260-269 CE) was a trusted military commander of Emperor Gallienus (253-268 CE) and governor or Germania …

Censor

A censor was one of two senior magistrates in the city of ancient Rome who supervised public morals, maintained the list of citizens and their tax …

Roman Shipbuilding Navigation

Unlike today, where shipbuilding is based on science and where ships are built using computers and sophisticated tools, shipbuilding in ancient Rome …

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus ('Tarquin the Proud') was traditionally the seventh and last king of ancient Rome before it became a republic. He belonged …

Roman Gaul

Roman Gaul is an umbrella term for several Roman provinces in western Europe. Cisalpine Gaul or <i>Gallia Cisalpina</i>, comprised a territory situated in …

Gallienus

Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (r. 253-268 CE), the eldest son of Emperor Valerian, was named co-emperor by his father in 253 CE. He was one of …

Battle of Teutoburg Forest

At the Battle of Teutoburg Forest (aka Battle of Varus), c. 9 CE, a combined force of Germans annihilated a Roman army consisting of three legions …

Roman Britain

Britain was a significant addition to the ever-expanding Roman Empire. For decades Rome had been conquering the Mediterranean Sea - defeating …

Valerian

In 253 CE an elderly Roman military commander and experienced former senator was proclaimed emperor by his troops - a very common occurrence at the …

Amphitheatre

An amphitheatre was a structure built throughout the Roman empire where ordinary people could watch such spectacles as gladiator games, mock naval …

Sulla

Lucius Cornelius Sulla (138-78 BCE) was a ruthless military commander, who first distinguished himself in the Numidian War under the command of Gaius …

The Battle of the Catalaunian Fields

The Battle of the Catalaunian Fields (also known as The Battle of Chalons, The Battle of Maurica) was one of the most decisive military engagements …

Cohortes Urbanae

The <i>cohortes</i> <i>urbanae</i> (urban cohorts) were a body of troops garrisoned at Rome, which was created by Augustus to provide additional security for the …

Saturnalia

The Saturnalia was an enduring Roman festival dedicated to the agricultural god Saturn which was held between the 17th and 23rd of December each year …

Plague of Cyprian, 250-270 CE

The Plague of Cyprian erupted in Ethiopia around Easter of 250 CE. It reached Rome in the following year eventually spreading to Greece and further …

Roman Senate

The Roman Senate functioned as an advisory body to Rome's magistrates and, composed as it was of the city's most experienced public servants and …

Tribune

Tribune was a title of various offices in ancient Rome, the two most important of which were the <i>tribuni</i><i>plebis</i>and <i>tribuni</i><i>militum</i>. The military tribunes …

Vigiles

The <i>vigiles</i> (or <i>cohortes</i><i>vigilum</i>) were formed during the reign of Augustus to act as ancient Rome's permanent firefighting service. Evolving from …

Praetorian Guard

The Praetorian Guard (<i>cohortes</i><i>praetoriae</i>) was, in the Roman Republic, a commander's personal bodyguard and then, in the imperial period, an elite …

Lucius Verus

Lucius Verus (161-169 CE) was Marcus Aurelius' adopted brother and co-emperor, a man whose time on the throne is overshadowed by the reign of the …

Banking in the Roman World

Just as in other ancient civilizations, the first banks in Rome began in the temples consecrated to the ancient Gods. Many temples held in their …

Roman Fort

The Roman army constructed both temporary and permanent forts and fortified military camps (<i>castrum</i>) across the frontiers of the empire's borders and …