Roman History

By Ancient History Encyclopedia www.ancient.eu | A selection of the most popular articles on Roman history from Ancient History Encyclopedia. Battles, emperors, buildings, daily life and more.

Valerian

In 253 CE an elderly Roman military commander and experienced former senator was proclaimed emperor by his troops - a very common occurrence at the …

Amphitheatre

An amphitheatre was a structure built throughout the Roman empire where ordinary people could watch such spectacles as gladiator games, mock naval …

Ancient History

Sulla

Lucius Cornelius Sulla (138-78 BCE) was a ruthless military commander, who first distinguished himself in the Numidian War under the command of Gaius …

The Battle of the Catalaunian Fields

The Battle of the Catalaunian Fields (also known as The Battle of Chalons, The Battle of Maurica) was one of the most decisive military engagements …

Cohortes Urbanae

The <i>cohortes</i> <i>urbanae</i> (urban cohorts) were a body of troops garrisoned at Rome, which was created by Augustus to provide additional security for the …

Saturnalia

The Saturnalia was an enduring Roman festival dedicated to the agricultural god Saturn which was held between the 17th and 23rd of December each year …

Religion

Plague of Cyprian, 250-270 CE

The Plague of Cyprian erupted in Ethiopia around Easter of 250 CE. It reached Rome in the following year eventually spreading to Greece and further …

Ancient History

Roman Senate

The Roman Senate functioned as an advisory body to Rome's magistrates and, composed as it was of the city's most experienced public servants and …

Tribune

Tribune was a title of various offices in ancient Rome, the two most important of which were the <i>tribuni</i><i>plebis</i>and <i>tribuni</i><i>militum</i>. The military tribunes …

Vigiles

The <i>vigiles</i> (or <i>cohortes</i><i>vigilum</i>) were formed during the reign of Augustus to act as ancient Rome's permanent firefighting service. Evolving from …

Praetorian Guard

The Praetorian Guard (<i>cohortes</i><i>praetoriae</i>) was, in the Roman Republic, a commander's personal bodyguard and then, in the imperial period, an elite …

Ancient History

Lucius Verus

Lucius Verus (161-169 CE) was Marcus Aurelius' adopted brother and co-emperor, a man whose time on the throne is overshadowed by the reign of the …

Banking in the Roman World

Just as in other ancient civilizations, the first banks in Rome began in the temples consecrated to the ancient Gods. Many temples held in their …

Rome

Roman Fort

The Roman army constructed both temporary and permanent forts and fortified military camps (<i>castrum</i>) across the frontiers of the empire's borders and …

Ancient History

Roman Egypt

The rich lands of Egypt became the property of Rome after the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BCE, which spelled the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty that …

Ancient Rome

Arminius

The Cherusci noble Arminius (c. 18 BCE - 19 CE) led the resistance to Roman conquest of Germania during the years 9-16 CE. Likely raised as a child …

Ancient History

Roman Science

The Romans assimilated earlier Greek science for their own purposes, evaluating and then accepting or rejecting that which was most useful, much as …

Ancient History

Saguntum

Saguntum (modern Sagunto), located near Valencia in Spain, was an Iberian, and then Roman, settlement. The town’s most dramatic moment in history …

Ancient History

Glanum

Glanum, located near St-Rémy-de-Provence in southern France, was a Greek and then Roman town which prospered due to its location on trading routes …

Empuries

Empuries (also Emporiae or Emporion) was a Greek and then Roman colony on the northeastern coast of Spain. Thriving as a local and Mediterranean …

Roman walls

The many Roman walls still visible today throughout Europe and the Mediterranean, be they defensive walls such as the Servian Wall or house and …

Ancient History

The Roman Theatre of Orange

The Roman theatre of ancient Arausio (modern day Orange in southern France) is one of the best-preserved examples from antiquity. Built in the 1st …

The Roman Hoxne Hoard

The Hoxne Hoard is the largest cache of late Roman gold found anywhere in the Roman Empire. Discovered by a metal detectorist in Suffolk, in the east …

Dido

Queen Dido (aka Elissa, from Elisha, or Alashiya, her Phoenician name) was a legendary Queen of Tyre in Phoenicia who was forced to flee the city …

Roman Siege Warfare

In ancient warfare open battles were the preferred mode of meeting the enemy, but sometimes, when defenders took a stand within their well-fortified …

Military History

The Sack of Rome by the Gauls, 390 BCE

After the Gauls defeated the Romans at the confluence of the Tiber and the Allia rivers, the Gauls marched on to Rome. In late July 390 BCE, the …

Roman Mills

The Romans constructed mills for use in agriculture, mining and construction. Around the 3rd century BCE, the first mills were used to grind grain. …

Castor and Pollux

Castor and Pollux (the Dioscuri) are figures from Greek and Roman mythology considered the twin sons of Zeus or Jupiter. Semi-divine figures, they …

Ancient History

Mithridates Poison Elixir: Fact or Fiction?

King Mithridates VI of Pontus, also known as Mithradates VI Eupator Dionysus and Mithridates the Great (135–63 BCE, r. 120-63 BCE) was a dogged Roman …