Roman History

By Ancient History Encyclopedia www.ancient.eu | A selection of the most popular articles on Roman history from Ancient History Encyclopedia. Battles, emperors, buildings, daily life and more.

Gallienus

Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (r. 253-268 CE), the eldest son of Emperor Valerian, was named co-emperor by his father in 253 CE. He was one of …

Battle of Teutoburg Forest

At the Battle of Teutoburg Forest (aka Battle of Varus), c. 9 CE, a combined force of Germans annihilated a Roman army consisting of three legions …

Roman Britain

Britain was a significant addition to the ever-expanding Roman Empire. For decades Rome had been conquering the Mediterranean Sea - defeating …

Ancient Rome

Valerian

In 253 CE an elderly Roman military commander and experienced former senator was proclaimed emperor by his troops - a very common occurrence at the …

History

Amphitheatre

An amphitheatre was a structure built throughout the Roman empire where ordinary people could watch such spectacles as gladiator games, mock naval …

Ancient Rome

Sulla

Lucius Cornelius Sulla (138-78 BCE) was a ruthless military commander, who first distinguished himself in the Numidian War under the command of Gaius …

Ancient Rome

The Battle of the Catalaunian Fields

The Battle of the Catalaunian Fields (also known as The Battle of Chalons, The Battle of Maurica) was one of the most decisive military engagements …

Ancient Rome

Cohortes Urbanae

The <i>cohortes</i> <i>urbanae</i> (urban cohorts) were a body of troops garrisoned at Rome, which was created by Augustus to provide additional security for the …

Ancient Rome

Saturnalia

The Saturnalia was an enduring Roman festival dedicated to the agricultural god Saturn which was held between the 17th and 23rd of December each year …

Festivals

Plague of Cyprian, 250-270 CE

The Plague of Cyprian erupted in Ethiopia around Easter of 250 CE. It reached Rome in the following year eventually spreading to Greece and further …

Ancient Greece

Roman Senate

The Roman Senate functioned as an advisory body to Rome's magistrates and, composed as it was of the city's most experienced public servants and …

Government

Tribune

Tribune was a title of various offices in ancient Rome, the two most important of which were the <i>tribuni</i><i>plebis</i>and <i>tribuni</i><i>militum</i>. The military tribunes …

Ancient Rome

Vigiles

The <i>vigiles</i> (or <i>cohortes</i><i>vigilum</i>) were formed during the reign of Augustus to act as ancient Rome's permanent firefighting service. Evolving from …

Fire Fighting

Praetorian Guard

The Praetorian Guard (<i>cohortes</i><i>praetoriae</i>) was, in the Roman Republic, a commander's personal bodyguard and then, in the imperial period, an elite …

Ancient History

Lucius Verus

Lucius Verus (161-169 CE) was Marcus Aurelius' adopted brother and co-emperor, a man whose time on the throne is overshadowed by the reign of the …

Ancient Rome

Banking in the Roman World

MOD<p>Just as in other ancient civilizations, the first banks in Rome began in the temples consecrated to the ancient Gods. Many temples held in their …

Banking

Roman Fort

The Roman army constructed both temporary and permanent forts and fortified military camps (<i>castrum</i>) across the frontiers of the empire's borders and …

Archaeology

Roman Egypt

The rich lands of Egypt became the property of Rome after the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BCE, which spelled the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty that …

Ancient Rome

Arminius

The Cherusci noble Arminius (c. 18 BCE - 19 CE) led the resistance to Roman conquest of Germania during the years 9-16 CE. Likely raised as a child …

Ancient Rome

Roman Science

The Romans assimilated earlier Greek science for their own purposes, evaluating and then accepting or rejecting that which was most useful, much as …

Ancient Rome

Saguntum

Saguntum (modern Sagunto), located near Valencia in Spain, was an Iberian, and then Roman, settlement. The town’s most dramatic moment in history …

Glanum

Glanum, located near St-Rémy-de-Provence in southern France, was a Greek and then Roman town which prospered due to its location on trading routes …

Ancient History

Empuries

Empuries (also Emporiae or Emporion) was a Greek and then Roman colony on the northeastern coast of Spain. Thriving as a local and Mediterranean …

Archaeology

Roman walls

The many Roman walls still visible today throughout Europe and the Mediterranean, be they defensive walls such as the Servian Wall or house and …

Ancient History

The Roman Theatre of Orange

The Roman theatre of ancient Arausio (modern day Orange in southern France) is one of the best-preserved examples from antiquity. Built in the 1st …

Ancient History

The Roman Hoxne Hoard

The Hoxne Hoard is the largest cache of late Roman gold found anywhere in the Roman Empire. Discovered by a metal detectorist in Suffolk, in the east …

Archaeology

Dido

Queen Dido (aka Elissa, from Elisha, or Alashiya, her Phoenician name) was a legendary Queen of Tyre in Phoenicia who was forced to flee the city …

Ancient History

Roman Siege Warfare

In ancient warfare open battles were the preferred mode of meeting the enemy, but sometimes, when defenders took a stand within their well-fortified …

Military History

The Sack of Rome by the Gauls, 390 BCE

After the Gauls defeated the Romans at the confluence of the Tiber and the Allia rivers, the Gauls marched on to Rome. In late July 390 BCE, the …

Ancient Rome