Roman History

By Ancient History Encyclopedia www.ancient.eu | A selection of the most popular articles on Roman history from Ancient History Encyclopedia. Battles, emperors, buildings, daily life and more.

Tribune

Tribune was a title of various offices in ancient Rome, the two most important of which were the <i>tribuni</i><i>plebis</i>and <i>tribuni</i><i>militum</i>. The military tribunes …

Rome

Vigiles

The <i>vigiles</i> (or <i>cohortes</i><i>vigilum</i>) were formed during the reign of Augustus to act as ancient Rome's permanent firefighting service. Evolving from …

Rome

Praetorian Guard

The Praetorian Guard (<i>cohortes</i><i>praetoriae</i>) was, in the Roman Republic, a commander's personal bodyguard and then, in the imperial period, an elite …

Italy

Lucius Verus

Lucius Verus (161-169 CE) was Marcus Aurelius' adopted brother and co-emperor, a man whose time on the throne is overshadowed by the reign of the …

Banking in the Roman World

Just as in other ancient civilizations, the first banks in Rome began in the temples consecrated to the ancient Gods. Many temples held in their …

Rome

Roman Fort

The Roman army constructed both temporary and permanent forts and fortified military camps (<i>castrum</i>) across the frontiers of the empire's borders and …

Military

Roman Egypt

The rich lands of Egypt became the property of Rome after the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BCE, which spelled the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty that …

Egypt

Arminius

The Cherusci noble Arminius (c. 18 BCE - 19 CE) led the resistance to Roman conquest of Germania during the years 9-16 CE. Likely raised as a child …

History

Roman Science

The Romans assimilated earlier Greek science for their own purposes, evaluating and then accepting or rejecting that which was most useful, much as …

Science

Saguntum

Saguntum (modern Sagunto), located near Valencia in Spain, was an Iberian, and then Roman, settlement. The town’s most dramatic moment in history …

History

Glanum

Glanum, located near St-Rémy-de-Provence in southern France, was a Greek and then Roman town which prospered due to its location on trading routes …

Imperialism

Empuries

Empuries (also Emporiae or Emporion) was a Greek and then Roman colony on the northeastern coast of Spain. Thriving as a local and Mediterranean …

War

Roman walls

The many Roman walls still visible today throughout Europe and the Mediterranean, be they defensive walls such as the Servian Wall or house and …

Rome

The Roman Theatre of Orange

The Roman theatre of ancient Arausio (modern day Orange in southern France) is one of the best-preserved examples from antiquity. Built in the 1st …

Archaeology

The Roman Hoxne Hoard

The Hoxne Hoard is the largest cache of late Roman gold found anywhere in the Roman Empire. Discovered by a metal detectorist in Suffolk, in the east …

Archaeology

Dido

Queen Dido (aka Elissa, from Elisha, or Alashiya, her Phoenician name) was a legendary Queen of Tyre in Phoenicia who was forced to flee the city …

Rome

Roman Siege Warfare

In ancient warfare open battles were the preferred mode of meeting the enemy, but sometimes, when defenders took a stand within their well-fortified …

War

The Sack of Rome by the Gauls, 390 BCE

After the Gauls defeated the Romans at the confluence of the Tiber and the Allia rivers, the Gauls marched on to Rome. In late July 390 BCE, the …

World News

Roman Mills

The Romans constructed mills for use in agriculture, mining and construction. Around the 3rd century BCE, the first mills were used to grind grain. …

Horse Racing

Castor and Pollux

Castor and Pollux (the Dioscuri) are figures from Greek and Roman mythology considered the twin sons of Zeus or Jupiter. Semi-divine figures, they …

Europe

Mithridates Poison Elixir: Fact or Fiction?

King Mithridates VI of Pontus, also known as Mithradates VI Eupator Dionysus and Mithridates the Great (135–63 BCE, r. 120-63 BCE) was a dogged Roman …

Toxins

Hamilcar Barca

Hamilcar Barca (c. 285 – c. 228 BCE) was a Carthaginian general active in the First Punic War (264-241 BCE). He then quashed a rebellion closer to …

World News

Third Punic War

The Third Punic War was fought between Carthage and Rome between 149 and 146 BCE. Carthage had already lost two wars against Rome, but their assault …

War

Second Punic War

The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. While the First Punic War had been fought …

War

First Punic War

The First Punic War was fought between Carthage and Rome between 264 and 241 BCE, largely over control of Sicily. The longest continuous war in …

War

Reforms of Augustus

Emperor Augustus (27 BCE – 14 CE) accomplished much during his time on the Roman throne, far more than many of his successors. According to historian …

Italy

Livia Drusilla

Livia Drusilla (58 BCE - 29 CE) was the third wife of emperor Augustus of Rome, mother of emperor Tiberius, and grandmother of emperor Claudius. She …

Rome

Fasces

The fasces were a bundle of rods and a single axe which were carried as a symbol of magisterial and priestly authority in ancient Rome. They featured …

Judiciary

Roman Glass from the Archaeological Museum of Pavia

Roman glassware includes some of the finest pieces of art ever produced in antiquity and the very best were valued higher than wares made with …

Archaeology