Mesopotamian History

By Ancient History Encyclopedia www.ancient.eu | A selection of Ancient History Encyclopedia's most popular articles and definitions covering ancient Mesopotamia.

Shapur I

Shapur I (240-270 CE) was the son of Ardashir (224 - c. 241 CE), the founder of the Sasanian dynasty, who made him his co-ruler and brought him on …

Ancient History

A Gift from King Shulgi: A Pair of Gold Earrings

Gold is a treasure, and he who possesses it does all he wishes to in this world, and succeeds in helping souls into paradise.<p>Christopher Columbus.<p>On …

Ancient History

Wall Reliefs: Apkallus of the North-West Palace at Nimrud

Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the …

Ancient History

Darius I

Darius I (c. 550-486 BCE), also known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of the Achaemenid Empire. His reign lasted 36 years, from c. …

Ahura Mazda

Ahura Mazda (also known as Ahuramazda, Harzoo, Hormazd, Hourmazd, Hurmuz, Ohrmazd, 'Lord' or 'Spirit') is the highest spirit worshipped in …

The White Obelisk of Ashurnasirpal I

In July 1853, Hormuzd Rassam was excavating an area at the ruins of the mound of Kuyunjik (Nineveh, Mesopotamia, modern-day Mosul Governorate, Iraq), …

Ancient History

Nanshe

Nanshe (also known as Nanse, Nazi) is the Sumerian goddess of social justice and divination, whose popularity eventually transcended her original …

Nanna

Nanna (also known as Nannar, Nanna-Suen, Sin, Asimbabbar, Namrasit, Inbu) is the Mesopotamian god of the moon and wisdom. He is one of the oldest …

Ninurta

Ninurta (identified with Ningirsu, Pabilsag, and the biblical Nimrod) is the Sumerian and Akkadian hero-god of war, hunting, and the south wind. He …

Ancient History

Pazuzu

Pazuzu is an Assyrian/Babylonian demonic god who was most popular in the first millenium BCE. He was the son of Hanbi (also Hanba), king of the …

Utu-Shamash

Utu (also known as Shamash, Samas, and Babbar) is the Sumerian god of the sun and divine justice. He is the son of the moon god Nanna and the …

Ninhursag

Ninhursag (also Ninhursaga) is the Sumerian Mother Goddess and one of the oldest and most important in the Mesopotamian Pantheon. She is known as the …

Ancient History

Enlil

Enlil (also known as Ellil and Nunamnir) was the Sumerian god of the air in the Mesopotamian Pantheon but was more powerful than any other elemental …

Ancient History

Nisaba

Nisaba (also Naga, Se-Naga, Nissaba, Nidaba, and associated with Nanibgal) is the Sumerian goddess of writing, accounts, and scribe of the gods. …

Anu

Anu (also known as An) is an early Mesopotamian sky god who was later viewed as the Father of the Gods and ruler of the heavens, a position which …

Ancient History

Gula

Gula (also known as Ninkarrak) is the Babylonian goddess of healing and patroness of doctors, healing arts, and medical practices. She is first …

Ancient History

Nergal

Nergal (also known as Erra and Irra) is the Mesopotamian god of death, war, and destruction. He began as a regional, probably agricultural, god of …

Enki in Ancient Literature

Enki is a god of Sumerian mythology and, later in time, known as Ea in Babylonian mythology. He was the deity of sweet water, crafts, creation, …

Ereshkigal

The work begins by stating how Inanna chooses to travel to the underworld to attend Gugulana's funeral - a death she brought about - and details how …

Ancient History

Nabu

Nabu (sometimes known as Tutu) is the Babylonian god of wisdom, learning, prophecy, scribes, and writing and was also responsible for the abundant …

Ancient History

Enki

Enki (also known as Ea, Enkig, Nudimmud, Ninsiku) was the Sumerian god of wisdom, fresh water, intelligence, trickery and mischief, crafts, magic, …

Marduk

Marduk was the patron god of Babylon, the Babylonian king of the gods, who presided over justice, compassion, healing, regeneration, magic, and …

Third Gender Figures in the Ancient Near East

In the ancient Near East, there was a social standard by which men were ideally expected to behave. In the 21st century CE, expectations still exist, …

Cuneiform Lexical Lists

Lexical lists are compilations of cuneiform signs and word readings written on clay tablets throughout Mesopotamia. From the late 4th millennium BCE …

Ancient History

Assyrian Lion-Hunting at the British Museum

Whoever was privileged to gain access to the North Palace of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal at Nineveh, could consider himself part of something …

Mari

Mari was a city-state located near the west bank of the Euphrates River in Northern Mesopotamia (now eastern Syria) during the Early Bronze Age and …

Mesopotamian Effects on Israel During the Iron Age

The Iron Age in the traditional Ancient Near Eastern chronology ranges from somewhere around 1200 BCE to 333 BCE. It begins from the era when it was …

Ancient History

Their History and Significance

Among the most interesting and revealing artifacts discovered from ancient Mesopotamia are the objects known as cylinder seals. These fairly small …

Cylinder Seal

Cylinder Seals were impression stamps used by the people of ancient Mesopotamia. Known as <i>kishib</i> in Sumerian and <i>kunukku</i> in Akkadian, the seals were …