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By Ancient History Encyclopedia www.ancient.eu | A selection of the most popular articles on Ancient History Encyclopedia covering the Maya, Aztecs, Incas and more.

Chimu Civilization

The Chimú civilization, otherwise called the kingdom of Chimor, flourished on the northern coast of Peru between the 12th and 15th centuries CE. With …

Civilization

Chavin Civilization

The Chavin civilization flourished between 900 and 200 BCE in the northern and central Andes and was one the earliest pre-Inca cultures. The Chavin …

Civilization

Aztec Warfare

The Aztecs engaged in warfare (yaoyotl) to acquire territory, resources, quash rebellions, and to collect sacrificial victims to honour their gods. …

Mitla

Mitla, located in the eastern portion of the Valley of Oaxaca in southern Mexico, was an important site of the Zapotec civilization. Gaining …

Teotihuacan

Teotihuacan, located in the Basin of Central Mexico, was the largest, most influential, and certainly most revered city in the history of the New …

Theology

Yaxchilan

Yaxchilan, located on the banks of the Usumacinta River in the Yucatán peninsula of Mexico, was an important Late Classic Maya centre. The Maya dated …

Glyphs

Inca Food & Agriculture

The Incas controlled a vast empire which included four climate zones and, consequently, their agricultural produce was diverse. The people of the …

Agriculture

Tulum

Tulum, on the east coast of the Yucatan peninsula in southern Mexico, was an important Mesoamerican centre which displayed both Maya and Toltec …

Riviera Maya

Inca Textiles

For the Incas finely worked and highly decorative textiles came to symbolize both wealth and status, fine cloth could be used as both a tax and …

Inca

Cuzco

Cuzco (also Cusco or Qosqo) was the religious and administrative capital of the Inca Empire which flourished in ancient Peru between c. 1400 and 1534 …

Architecture

El Tajin

El Tajin is located near the coast of eastern Mexico and was an important Mesoamerican centre which flourished between 900 and 1100 CE. A part of the …

Architecture

How to Read a Maya Glyph

For over three centuries, the ancient Maya flourished in Mesoamerica. They built giant stone pyramids surrounded by dense jungle, used a calendrical …

Glyphs

Copan

Copán (in modern Honduras) is located on the floodplain of the river of the same name. It was the most southerly of the Classic Maya centres and, at …

United Kingdom

Xibalba

Xibalba (Shee-bal-ba) was the name the K'iche Maya gave to the underworld. For the Yucatec Maya the underworld was known as Metnal. The name Xibalba …

The Classic Maya Collapse

The Terminal Classic period in Mesoamerica between c. 800 and 925 CE saw one of the most dramatic civilization collapses in history. Within a century …

Cities

Uxmal

Uxmal, in north-west Yucatán, Mexico, was an important Maya city which flourished between the 6th and 10th centuries CE. The city, following an …

Architecture

Tikal

Tikal, located in the north of the Petén region of Guatemala, was a major Maya city which flourished between 300 and 850 CE. The city, known to the …

Architecture

Palenque

Located in the foothills of the Chiapas altiplano of modern Mexico, Palenque was an important Maya city which flourished between c. 600 and 750 CE. …

Architecture

Chichen Itza

Chichen Itza, located in the centre of the Yucatán Peninsula of modern Mexico, was a Maya city which was later significantly influenced by the Toltec …

Architecture

Inca Civilization

The Inca civilization flourished in ancient Peru between c. 1400 and 1534 CE, and their empire eventually extended across western South America from …

Inca

The Inca Road System

The Inca road system formed a network known as the royal highway or qhapaq ñan, which became an invaluable part of the Inca empire, not only …

Roads

Moche Civilization

The Moche civilization (also known as the Mochica) flourished along the northern coast and valleys of ancient Peru, in particular, in the Chicama and …

Archaeology

Pizarro and Atahualpa: The Curse of the Lost Inca Gold

In November 1532 CE, Francisco Pizarro led a group of about 160 conquistadors into the Inca city of Cajamarca. The illiterate and illegitimate son of …

Inca

Wanka Civilization (Encyclopedia Definition)

The Wanka (also Wanca or Huanca) people occupied the highlands of ancient central Peru around Lake Junin and the Manataro, Chanchamayo and Tarma …

Civilization

Quetzalcoatl

Quetzalcóatl (pron. Quet-zal-co-at) was one of the most important gods in ancient Mesoamerica. The god known as the Plumed Serpent is a mix of bird …

Pinson Mounds

The Pinson Mounds are an ancient Native American complex that was discovered in Madison County, Tennessee. The prehistoric site includes at least 17 …

Indigenous Peoples

Olmec Civilization

The mysterious Olmec civilization prospered in Pre-Classical (Formative) Mesoamerica from c. 1200 BCE to c. 400 BCE and is generally considered the …

Machu Picchu

Machu Picchu is an Inca settlement located in the High Andes of Peru in the Urubamba Valley, north of Cuzco. The site, perched high above the …

Machu Picchu

Inca Architecture

Inca architecture includes some of the most finely worked stone structures from any ancient civilization. Inca buildings were almost always practical …

Architecture