Andrew Ficarra

121 Flips | 2 Magazines | 1 Like | 366 Followers | @Biggins1 | Keep up with Andrew Ficarra on Flipboard, a place to see the stories, photos, and updates that matter to you. Flipboard creates a personalized magazine full of everything, from world news to life’s great moments. Download Flipboard for free and search for “Andrew Ficarra”

Anatomical Planes of the Body By Maggie Norris and Donna Rae Siegfried Part of the Anatomy & Physiology For Dummies Cheat Sheet You may not think about the planes of your body much, but you have them nonetheless, and if you’re talking anatomy, knowing the names of the planes comes in handy. (Too bad sagittal and tranverse don’t lend themselves to song as easily as rain and Spain do.) The main planes and their subplanes are in the following list: Sagittal: Plane that runs down through the body, dividing the body into left and right portions. Subsections of the sagittal plane include: Midsagittal runs through the median plane and divides along the line of symmetry Parasagittal is parallel to midline but does not divide into equal left and right portions. Coronal (frontal): Plane that runs perpendicular to the sagittal plane and divides the body into anterior and posterior (front and back) portions. Transverse: Horizontal plane that divides the body into upper and lower portions; also called cross-section.

Nervous System Comment, Like and Share with your Friends www.physio-therapy.cz

Physiotherapy for meniscal tears in patients with osteoarthritis

New research suggests there is no difference in functional outcome when arthroscopic surgery is added to standardized physiotherapy for patients with …

Log In or Sign Up to View

This Facebook post is no longer available. It may have been removed or the privacy settings of the post may have changed.

Haglund's Syndrome & Deformity Haglund's Syndrome is a condition that occurs at the back of the heel when you are suffering from Achilles tendonitis and bursitis in the retrocalcaneal bursa. The retrocalcaneal bursa is a small fluid-filled sac at the back of the calcaneus (heel bone) that allows the Achilles tendon to slide smoothly over the heel bone. Achilles tendinitis (also spelled tendonitis) is inflammation in the Achilles tendon, often due to irritation and/or micro-tearing of the collagen fibers. Achilles bursitis occurs when the retrocalcaneal bursa is irritated from frequent pressure and it becomes inflamed. In some cases, the inflamed bursa also becomes infected with bacteria (referred to as septic bursitis) and it is necessary to see a doctor to get rid of the infection. Haglund's Deformity is a painful, enlarged boney protrusion of the upper posterolateral calcaneus that is caused by calcification of the heel bone due to the inflammation of Haglund's Syndrome. Unfortunately, the boney protrusion causes further irritation to the retrocalcaneal bursa and Achille tendon due to excess compression of the Achilles tendon and bursa between the protrusion and the back of shoes or other footwear. This increased irritation than causes Haglund's Syndrome to become worse. Due to similar symptoms and the location in the Achilles tendon area, Haglund's Syndrome is frequently misdiagnosed as Achilles tendonitis. Symptoms Sufferers of Haglund's Syndrome may experience: Pain at the back of the calcaneus and up the Achilles tendon, especially with jumping, hopping, tip-toeing, walking or running uphill or on soft surfaces. Stiffness in your Achilles tendon when you wake in the morning. Tenderness, warmth and swelling which might make it difficult to wear certain shoes. As the retrocalcaneal bursa becomes more inflamed you will experience swelling. Swelling can cause difficulties moving the affected area and the range of motion in the ankle is usually affected. Limping due to the pain may occur. Possibly a fever if you are suffering from septic bursitis (You will need to see a doctor for medication to get rid of the infection). The Achilles tendon and retrocalcaneal bursa are irritated by heat but feels good when treated with cold compression and rest. Weakness in the Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius or soleus muscles can develop as the pain worsens and the inflammation in the area spreads. For individuals who wear high-heeled shoes frequently, they may also feel an increase in pain when they are wearing flat shoes. When wearing high-heels, the calf muscles and Achilles tendon remain in a shortened position. When flat shoes are worn it causes the calf muscles and Achilles tendon to stretch more than usual causing the tendon to tighten around the heel bone and the tendon and bursa become irritated. Who is at Risk? Haglund's Syndrome is a very common runner's injury as well as with other athletes. It often results from sport footwear (i.e. runners, golf shoes or hockey skates) frequently compressing the retrocalcaneal bursa and Achilles tendon while participating in sports. Women aged 15-35 who wear high heeled shoes also have a high incidence of Haglund's Syndrome and Deformity. It is thought that the pressure on the Achilles tendon and retrocalcaneal bursa is made worse by the height of the heel. Due to the relationship between women's shoes and Haglund's Syndrome, the swollen bump that forms at the back of the heel because of this condition is often referred to as "pump bump". It is important to treat Haglund's Syndrome in the early stages to reduce the symptoms, minimize damage and maintain motion and strength in your foot. Resting your ankle, using proper cushioning, wearing comfortable footwear and reducing any activities that add pressure on your retrocalcaneal bursa and Achilles tendon will help to reduce your pain and inflammation. By treating Haglund's Syndrome in the early stages you are more likely to prevent long-term damage and chronic conditions from setting in. Treatments - What You Can Do! Relieving the symptoms of Haglund's Syndrome initially focuses on taking the pressure off the retrocalcaneal bursa and reducing inflammation in the Achilles tendon. This can be done with proper cushioning, inserts, or footwear but may require surgery to reduce the enlarged heel bone if the syndrome is caused by Haglund's Deformity. Preliminary treatment starts with cold therapy and ultrasound treatments. The most important factor in healing Haglund's Syndrome (Achilles bursitis and tendonitis) is resting your ankle. This can be difficult when you have to carry on with daily activities, but resting and elevating your foot whenever you can is recommended. During your recovery you will probably have to modify or avoid the activities that put stress on your retrocalcaneal bursa and Achilles tendon until your pain and inflammation settle. To decrease inflammation and relieve pain caused by Haglund's Syndrome use cold therapy and therapeutic ultrasound. Blood Flow Stimulation Therapy (BFST®) is very effective at improving the elasticity of the retrocalaneal bursa sac, Achilles tendon and muscle tissue in the ankle which decreases the risk of your ankle condition becoming chronic and/or Haglund's Syndrome returning. Cold Compression Therapy The R.C.C.E. treatment philosophy is used to decrease inflammation and relieve the pain of Haglund's Syndrome quickly when your retrocalcaneal bursa and Achilles tendon are inflamed and painful. Rest and limit your activity, to decrease swelling and minimize further inflammation in the Achilles bursa and tendon. Cool the back of your heel to help reduce blood flow and fluid build up. Compress the area if possible by adding light pressure to minimize swelling (make sure the wrap is snug, but not too tight as it could cause more pain on the bursa). Elevate your foot to relieve the pressure from swelling. Applying cold to your Achilles bursa and tendon will decrease the swelling and redness at the back of your heel. In addition, it will numb the pain in your heel and help to control the inflammation. Simply, apply cold to your ankle as needed throughout the day, for approximately 10-15 minutes at a time. The cold compression Ankle/Achilles Freezie Wrap® can be used to apply cold in a safe, convenient and effective way - and the gel pack is reusable. Only the Freezie Wrap® gel pack is charged in the fridge. This means the cooling temperature of the gel pack will not cause cold burns, or cryoburn, on your skin like ice or freezie charged gel packs can. You can also treat yourself for longer periods of time so you get lasting pain relief. The gel pack sits over the inflamed bursa and tendon to reduce swelling and redness. The wrap is soft and adjustable so it fits your foot properly, without irritating the retrocalcaneal bursa, and allows you to adjust the compression. This is important when treating an inflamed bursa because too much pressure can cause you further pain. You control how much pressure the bursa receives so you can benefit from the compression to hold the cold where you need it, without increasing your pain. In addition to cold therapy, doctor's recommend using ultrasound therapy to further reduce inflammation and treat scar tissue to prevent Haglund's Syndrome from returning. Ultrasound Therapy Ultrasound has been used by physical therapists and chiropractors for years to treat Haglund's Syndrome. By applying ultrasound therapy to your sore bursa and tendon you can reduce the inflamed fluid that has built up in the bursa, reduce inflammation caused by the bony protrusion of Haglund's Deformity, and reduce inflammation on your Achilles tendon. In addition, ultrasound therapy will treat any other soft tissue conditions that you may be experiencing in your foot such as gout, arch pain, hammer or claw toe, inflammation due to a heel spur and more. By treating yourself with ultrasound everyday, you are able to rid yourself of pain and start using your ankle joint (talocrural joint) normally again. But that's not all. With Haglund's Syndrome you will develop scar tissue on the bursa sac and Achilles tendon. As your damaged tissue begins to heal, this fibrotic, dense tissue is naturally produced instead of forming brand new healthy tissue. Calcification of the bursa and tendon may also occur, adding to the bursa and Achilles tendon pain you are already experiencing. Scar tissue adheres to your bursae, muscle fibers, tendons, ligaments, fascia, and nerves in the ankle causing pain and preventing proper movement (this limits your range of motion, flexibility and strength) of your foot. Fortunately, therapeutic ultrasound treatments can also get rid of unwanted scar tissue and soften calcified areas of the Achilles tendon and bursa. Ultrasound therapy is a great option to decrease inflammation, pain and scar tissue experienced with Achilles bursitis, tendonitis and other soft tissue injuries. The treatment is easy, painless, and generally requires between 5 - 10 minutes of your time. It is based on a form of deep thermal therapy which is generated through high frequency sound waves that reach into the cells of your Achilles bursa, tendon and other soft tissue in your ankle. These sound waves help to reduce the fluid build up in the bursa, heal any tissue damaged through trauma, reduce scar tissue build up on the Achilles tendon, as well as reduce any inflammation caused by calcific deposits that gather in the retrocalcaneal bursa and Achilles area. Ultrasound can also be used to administer therapeutic medicines into the body. This is a process known as phonophoresis. Ultrasound with phonophoresis is rapidly becoming more popular than ultrasound therapy alone. Using the MendMeShop® Lavender Infusion Gel during your ultrasound therapy gives you 2 therapies in 1. You get the benefit of the regenerating sound waves from the ultrasound device itself AND the added bonus of the therapeutic ingredients inside the gel being delivered into the tissue where it is most effective. Lavender Infusion Ultrasound Gel contains the natural essential oils of Bulgarian lavender, peppermint, eucalyptus, and menthol and is exclusively available from MendMeShop®. These ingredients reduce inflammation, relieve pain and improve blood circulation to your retrocalcaneal bursa and Achilles tendon. 1 bottle of MendMeShop® Lavender Infusion Ultrasound Gel comes FREE with every MendMeShop® Ultrasound System so you get unbeatable ultrasound therapy for your ankle. Blood Flow Stimulation Therapy Once the inflammation of Haglund's Syndrome has been reduced with cold therapy and ultrasound treatments it is time to improve blood flow and improve the elasticity of your surrounding soft tissue. Your body needs a fresh supply of blood to improve the health of your tissue and get your bursa and Achilles tendon back to normal. Unfortunately, when you are suffering from Haglund's Syndrome it is painful to walk and move your foot normally. When you limit movement in your foot the blood flow is reduced, starving your tissue of the necessary oxygen and nutrients. The trick is to find a way to increase blood flow without causing pain and/or further inflaming the bursa and tendon. This is where Blood Flow Stimulation Therapy (BFST®) becomes a powerful tool. BFST® compliments your body's natural healing process by promoting the flow of blood to your foot while you give it the rest it needs. The Ankle/Achilles Inferno Wrap® uses a patented process to generate the same energy that is part of the sun's spectrum of light, the same energy that is necessary to all living things for optimum health. The energy emitted from the Energy Web® stimulates blood flow to your ankle, more than you body would ever be able to generate on it's own, giving your body the boost it needs to continue the reconditioning process. The healing energy reaches deep into your retrocalcaneal bursa and Achilles tendon to speed tissue repair, whisk away the toxins and dead cells, and rejuvenate your ankle tissues for improved elasticity. This 3 step process is the most effective method to treat your swollen and painful bursa, reduce the inflammation in your tendon and improve the health of the soft tissue in your ankle. Pain and Anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs - Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) can be used if required to help manage your pain. However, these aren't recommended for long term use, as they can cause gastrointestinal difficulties and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. The use of cold therapy, ultrasound and BFST® in conjunction with NSAIDs can greatly improve the effect of this medication and can help to heal quicker. Comment, Like and Share with your Friends www.physio-therapy.cz

Lumbar Herniated prob areas Comment, Like and Share with Friends www.physio-therapy.cz

Biomeme Wants To Turn Your iOS Device Into A Disease-Detecting Mobile DNA Lab

There’s a vast, vast sea of the smartphone accessories out there that are designed to solve first-world problems (do we honestly need another bottle opening case?), but here’s one that aspires to change the rest of the world. The folks at Dreamit Ventures-backed Biomeme have developed a device that …

Hip Bursitis What is hip bursitis? Bursitis is irritation or inflammation of the bursa. A bursa is a fluid-filled sac that acts as a cushion between tendons, bones, and skin. There is a bump on the outer side of the upper part of the thigh bone (femur) called the greater trochanter. The trochanteric bursa is located over the greater trochanter. When this bursa is inflamed it is called trochanteric bursitis How does it occur? The trochanteric bursa may be inflamed by a group of muscles or tendons rubbing over the bursa and causing friction against the thigh bone. Your Iliotibial band goes from the iliac crest of your pelvis down the outer side of your thigh and attaches just below the knee. A tight Iliotibial band can lead to trochanteric bursitis. This injury can occur with running, walking, or bicycling, especially when the bicycle seat is too high. Trochanteric bursitis may also be caused by a fall, by a spine disorder, by differences in the length of your legs, or as a complication of hip surgery. What are the symptoms? You have pain on the upper outer area of your thigh or on the side of your hip. The pain is worse when you walk, bicycle, or go up or down stairs. You have pain when you move your thigh bone and feel tenderness in the area over the greater trochanter. How is it diagnosed? Your healthcare provider will ask about your symptoms and examine your hip and thigh. How is it treated? To treat this condition: Put an ice pack, gel pack, or package of frozen vegetables, wrapped in a cloth on the area every 3 to 4 hours, for up to 20 minutes at a time. Take an anti-inflammatory medicine such as ibuprofen, or other medicine as directed by your provider. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs) may cause stomach bleeding and other problems. These risks increase with age. Read the label and take as directed. Unless recommended by your healthcare provider, do not take for more than 10 days. Follow your provider’s instructions for doing exercises to help you recover. Your provider may give you an injection of a corticosteroid medicine. While you are recovering from your injury you will need to change your sport or activity to one that does not make your condition worse. For example, you may need to swim instead of running or bicycling. If you are bicycling, you may need to lower your bicycle seat. How long do the effects last? The length of recovery depends on many factors such as your age, health, and if you have had a previous injury. Recovery time also depends on the severity of the injury. A bursa that is only mildly inflamed and has just started to hurt may improve within a few weeks. A bursa that is significantly inflamed and has been painful for a long time may take up to a few months to improve. You need to stop doing the activities that cause pain until your bursa has healed. If you continue doing activities that cause pain, your symptoms will return and it will take longer to recover. When can I return to my normal activities? Everyone recovers from an injury at a different rate. Return to your activities depends on how soon your leg recovers, not by how many days or weeks it has been since your injury has occurred. In general, the longer you have symptoms before you start treatment, the longer it will take to get better. The goal of rehabilitation is to return to your normal activities as soon as is safely possible. If you return too soon you may worsen your injury. You may safely return to your normal activities when, starting from the top of the list and progressing to the end, each of the following is true: You have full range of motion in the injured leg compared to the uninjured leg. You have full strength of the injured leg compared to the uninjured leg. You can walk straight ahead without pain or limping. How can I prevent trochanteric bursitis? Trochanteric bursitis is best prevented by warming up properly and stretching the muscles on the outer side of your upper thigh. Comment, Like and Share with your Friends www.physio-therapy.cz

Hip Bursitis Exercises You can do the first 3 stretches to begin stretching the muscles that run along the outside of your hip. You can do the strengthening exercises when the sharp pain lessens. Stretching exercises Gluteal stretch: Lie on your back with both knees bent. Rest the ankle of your injured leg over the knee of your other leg. Grasp the thigh of the leg on the uninjured side and pull toward your chest. You will feel a stretch along the buttocks on the injured side and possibly along the outside of your hip. Hold the stretch for 15 to 30 seconds. Repeat 3 times. Iliotibial band stretch, standing: Cross your uninjured leg in front of the other leg and bend down and reach toward the inside of your back foot. Do not bend your knees. Hold this position for 15 to 30 seconds. Return to the starting position. Repeat 3 times. Iliotibial band stretch, side-leaning: Stand sideways near a wall with your injured side closest to the wall. Place a hand on the wall for support. Cross the leg farther from the wall over the other leg. Keep the foot closest to the wall flat on the floor. Lean your hips into the wall. Hold the stretch for 15 to 30 seconds. Repeat 3 times Strengthening exercises Straight leg raise: Lie on your back with your legs straight out in front of you. Bend the knee on your uninjured side and place the foot flat on the floor. Tighten the thigh muscle on your injured side and lift your leg about 8 inches off the floor. Keep your leg straight and your thigh muscle tight. Slowly lower your leg back down to the floor. Do 2 sets of 15. Prone hip extension: Lie on your stomach with your legs straight out behind you. Draw your belly button in towards your spine and tighten your abdominal muscles. Tighten the buttocks and thigh muscles of the leg on your injured side and lift the leg off the floor about 8 inches. Keep your leg straight. Hold for 5 seconds. Then lower your leg and relax. Do 2 sets of 15. Side-lying leg lift: Lie on your uninjured side. Tighten the front thigh muscles on your injured leg and lift that leg 8 to 10 inches away from the other leg. Keep the leg straight and lower it slowly. Do 2 sets of 15. Wall squat with a ball: Stand with your back, shoulders, and head against a wall. Look straight ahead. Keep your shoulders relaxed and your feet 3 feet from the wall and shoulder's width apart. Place a soccer or basketball-sized ball behind your back. Keeping your back against the wall, slowly squat down to a 45-degree angle. Your thighs will not yet be parallel to the floor. Hold this position for 10 seconds and then slowly slide back up the wall. Repeat 10 times. Build up to 2 sets of 15. Clam exercise: Lie on your uninjured side with your hips and knees bent and feet together. Slowly raise your top leg toward the ceiling while keeping your heels touching each other. Hold for 2 seconds and lower slowly. Do 2 sets of 15 repetitions. Comment, Like and Share with your Friends www.physio-therapy.cz

Exercise is a powerful tool in the fight against cancer

579 Shares<p>If you had cancer, how good would a treatment have to be, how much would it have to help, for you to use it? How about if it gave you a 5% …

Transitioning From Injury to Strength Training

• 9shares<br>• 5<p>If you ever work with injured people, you will inevitably get the question from a patient at some point “how do I transition back into …

Jumper's Knee What is jumper’s knee? Jumper’s knee is inflammation or micro-tears in the tendon that connects the kneecap (patella) to the shinbone. It is also called patellar tendinopathy. Tendons, are strong bands of connective tissue that attach muscle to bone. When a tendon is acutely injured it is called a strain. Tendonitis is when a tendon is inflamed. When there are micro-tears in a tendon from repeated injury it is called tendinosis. Tendinopathy is the term for both inflammation and micro-tears. How does it occur? Activities that put repeated stress on the patellar tendon can cause it to be inflamed. Too much jumping is the most common cause. Other repeated activities such as running, walking, or bicycling may also cause the problem. Jumper’s knee can also happen if your hips, legs, knees, or feet are not aligned properly. People whose hips are wide, who are knock-kneed, or who have feet with arches that collapse when they walk or run can have this problem. The patellar tendon may sometimes rupture or tear completely during strenuous activity. What are the symptoms? Symptoms may include: pain and tenderness around the patellar tendon swelling in your knee joint or swelling where the patellar tendon attaches to the shinbone pain with jumping, running, or walking, especially downhill or downstairs pain when you bend or straighten the leg tenderness behind the kneecap If your patellar tendon is ruptured, usually you will have sudden severe pain and you will not be able to straighten your leg or walk. How is it diagnosed? Your healthcare provider will examine your knee. He or she will also have you run, jump, or squat to see if this causes pain. Your feet will be examined to see if you have a problem with over-pronation. You may have X-rays or an MRI of your knee. How is it treated? To treat this condition: Put an ice pack, gel pack, or package of frozen vegetables, wrapped in a cloth on the area every 3 to 4 hours, for up to 20 minutes at a time. Elevate your knee on a pillow when you sit or lie down. Take an anti-inflammatory medicine such as ibuprofen, or other medicine as directed by your provider. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs) may cause stomach bleeding and other problems. These risks increase with age. Read the label and take as directed. Unless recommended by your healthcare provider, do not take for more than 10 days. Follow your provider’s instructions for doing exercises to help you recover. Your healthcare provider will show you exercises to help decrease the pain behind your kneecap. Your healthcare provider may suggest that you: Wear shoe inserts (called orthotics) for over-pronation. You can buy orthotics at a pharmacy or athletic shoe store or they can be custom-made. Use an infrapatellar strap, a strap placed beneath the kneecap over the patellar tendon. Wear a neoprene knee sleeve, which supports your knee and patella. While you recover from your injury, you will need to change your sport or activity to one that does not make your condition worse. For example, bicycle or swim instead of run. In severe cases, you may need surgery. How long will the effects it last? A tendon that is only mildly inflamed and has just started to hurt may improve within a few weeks. A tendon that is significantly inflamed and has been painful for a long time may take up to a few months to improve. You need to stop doing the activities that cause pain until your tendon has healed. If you continue doing activities that cause pain, your symptoms will return and it will take longer to recover. When can I return to my normal activities? Everyone recovers from an injury at a different rate. Return to your activities depends on how soon your knee recovers, not by how many days or weeks it has been since your injury has occurred. In general, the longer you have symptoms before you start treatment, the longer it will take to get better. The goal is to return to your normal activities as soon as is safely possible. If you return too soon you may worsen your injury. You may safely return to your normal activities when, starting from the top of the list and progressing to the end, each of the following is true: you can straighten and bend your injured knee without pain your knee and leg are as strong as your uninjured knee and leg your knee is not swollen you are able bend, walk, and squat without pain How can I prevent jumper’s knee? Jumper’s knee can best be prevented by having strong thigh muscles. It also helps to stretch before and after exercising, and wear shoes that fit properly and are right for the activity. Comment, Like and Share with Friends www.physio-therapy.cz

Comment, Like and Share with your Friends www.physio-therapy.cz

Metatarsal Stress Fracture: Rehab & Return to Running

Metatarsal Stress Fractures: Rehab & Return to Running<p><i>Metatarsal Stress Fracture Rehab Exercises</i><p>Of all the blog posts I’ve written to date, this …

Loading

Comment, Like and Share with your Friends www.physio-therapy.cz

There are a number of treatments available for long-lasting shoulder pain, including physical therapies, steroid injections and, in severe cases, surgery.

What treatments are there for shoulder pain?<p>If your shoulder pain doesn’t improve with simple medications, other treatments are available. Your …

To stretch or not to stretch… that is the question!

But what is the answer?<p><b>There has been a hell of a lot of debate about stretching and its effects and role in injury prevention recently, with many</b> …

The sub acromial bursa is a main cause of nocioception in shoulder & its larger & covers more than most realise http://t.co/JNDgD7LJQq

Return to play following ACL reconstruction: survey among experienced arthroscopic surgeons (AGA instructors). - PubMed

PURPOSE:<p>There is a lack of consensus regarding appropriate criteria attesting patient's unrestricted sports activities after ACL reconstruction. The …

Shoulder Instability: An Introduction

<b>I love the shoulder joint, its a marvellous unique structure within the human body, it is the most mobile joint we have, no other joint can match it</b> …

Lumbar Spine Mobilisation For Hamstring Strains

Introduction<p>As sports physiotherapists we regularly assess and treat hamstring strains, sometimes on a daily basis! Hawkins et al. (2001) showed that …

Study: Happiness Peaks at age 23, 69

Blame your high expectations. According to a study from the Centre for Economic Performance at the London School of Economics to be published this week, life satisfaction peaks at 23 and 69, dipping dramatically in your 50s as life's myriad disappointments kick in.<p>After surveying 23,161 Germans, …

Achilles Tendinopathy: Evidence Based Diagnosis and Management

INTRODUCTION<p>Mid-portion (or non-insertional) Achilles tendinopathy has been reported as one of the most common overuse injuries (Maffulli et al., …

Exercise reorganizes the brain to be more resilient to stress

Physical activity reorganizes the brain so that its response to stress is reduced and anxiety is less likely to interfere with normal brain function.

Muscular System Comment, Like and Share with your Friends www.physio-therapy.cz